The Republic of Tajikistan is a Party to the Nagoya Protocol. National actions on biodiversity are guided by the National Strategy and Action Plan on Preservation.
Biodiversity in Tajikistan
Tajikistan is a predominantly mountainous country. Ninety-three percent of its territory is made up of mountains, and are divided into plains and low mountains, midlands, highlands, and nival environments. The country has 12 ecosystem and 20 vegetation types and its flora and fauna make up nearly two percent of the world’s species. Its large endowment of medicinal plants is widely used locally for traditional medicine. Tajikistan is one of the key centres of origin for many commonly used agricultural species.
The major threats to Tajikistan’s ecosystems include population increase, which has led to the conversion of natural habitats for agriculture and infrastructure, deforestation, overgrazing, forest fire and illegal poaching, including trophy and bustard hunting. As a result, there is a decrease in arable land and forest cover, with increasing demands on biodiversity resources in the country.
Nagoya Protocol and ABS Implementation
The Republic of Tajikistan is a Party to the Nagoya Protocol. National actions on biodiversity are guided by the National Strategy and Action Plan on Preservation and Rational Use of Biodiversity of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on Special Protected Natural Areas. There is also the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on Environmental Conservation, which was adopted in 2011 and is being updated annually to strengthen conservation and use of biodiversity. However, these legal instruments pre-date the Nagoya Protocol and therefore need to be complemented by additional ABS provisions to comply with provisions of the Protocol. Implementation of the Nagoya Protocol in the country is expected to further improve food security and enhance sustainable conservation of biodiversity and valuable genetic resources.
Current UNDP-GEF Global ABS Project Activities
The UNDP-GEF Global Access to genetic resources Benefit-Sharing (ABS) Project is supporting the development of a new ABS legal framework for Tajikistan, and training national stakeholders to enhance their capacities to implement the framework. The project supported the conduct of a knowledge, attitude and practice survey on ABS, which provided useful baseline information for the drafting of the legal instruments.
The project is supporting awareness-raising about the benefits of ABS to the country and its local communities and partnership strengthening for increased cooperation at the regional level. Efforts also focus on the development of options for the sui generis protection of traditional knowledge, including considerations for the documentation of traditional knowledge, upgrading of national genetic resources-related information systems, as well as the establishment of a national ABS clearing house and an online permit and monitoring system.